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Muslim Avdeev
Muslim Avdeev

Tonic - Lemon

In this recipe, the hibiscus tea is cold brewed with lemon and some erythritol (or if you're feeling naughty, sugar) and it really does taste like a mild fruit punch. The lemon adds a zesty tang but also helps make those antioxidants from the tea more bioavailable. The erythritol of course sweetens it up but also adds it's own antioxidants! I like to add a few drops of coconut extract just for extra tropical fun! This is a delicious, cold drink that's great to sip on throughout the summer. Also, check out how hibiscus tea affects the antioxidant levels in the bloodstream. See how much you're learning?

Tonic - Lemon

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This fresh ginger root tea is made with just two ingredients and comes together in about 15 minutes. To make good ginger root tea, stir in honey and lemon and sip while still piping hot and aromatic.

The day agreed upon was pouring rain. At eleven o'clock a man in a raincoat dragging a lawn-mower tapped at my front door and said that Mr. Gatsby had sent him over to cut my grass. This reminded me that I had forgotten to tell my Finn to come back so I drove into West Egg Village to search for her among soggy white-washed alleys and to buy some cups and lemons and flowers.

The exhilarating ripple of her voice was a wild tonic in the rain. I had to follow the sound of it for a moment, up and down, with my ear alone before any words came through. A damp streak of hair lay like a dash of blue paint across her cheek and her hand was wet with glistening drops as I took it to help her from the car.

"Taking the major diatonic scale as a standard, although that scale gives imperfectly the sounds produced,the fourth and seventh of that scale are not fundamentaltones in the African perception, but subordinate tones.The principal tone in African perception is that group oftones answering to the second major diatonic scale; thetones next in importance are the fifth and sixth being thefourth below it. The other two tones are subordinate andare used for cadential purposes, or otherwise, to dividethe interval of the perfect fourth. This appears to havebeen the original perception."

The African tom-tom has had parallels abroad. DanielAlomia Robles, a Peruvian musician and archaeologist,has a flute which was found in one of the old tombs inPeru. Among the old Inca instruments, some of which areover 3,000 years old, is a 5 string harp. Of the 4 noteinstruments, the scale was found to be Re, Fa, Sol, La,later enlarged by the interval of a third, which is a complete Inca pentatonic scale. Mr. Robles claims this is inadvance of the Greeks. As we know, this Inca music,later absorbed by the Spanish, was again modified byAfrican influences. In this the "marimba", or xylophone,a native African piano, was an important factor.

"Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," an American "NegroSpiritual" in the pentatonic scale, noted in Fisk Jubilee Songs, 1871, offers a key to this development. The variants of this song are "Good Old Chariot," "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," (Hampton) and "The Danville Chariot." In the first movement of Dvorák's "New WorldSymphony," in which this theme occurs, it is given out bythe flute. The song has been arranged with piano accompaniment by many composers, and transcribed for organby Carl R. Diton. William Arms Fisher, who has giventhe melody a setting for solo voice and piano, tells an interesting story about the song, which was told to him byBishop Frederick Fisher of Calcutta, India, who had recently returned from Central Africa. He relates:

Two beautiful Spirituals which are Christmas carolsare the songs, "De New-Born Baby," and "Go Tell it onthe Mountains." These pentatonic melodies have beenmost fittingly harmonized for solo voice by Harvey B.Gaul. They can be found in Seventy Negro Spirituals,edited by William Armes Fisher. The first comes fromSouth Carolina and is sung by the fishermen on the Atlantic seaboard coast. The second was noted in Religious Folk Songs of the Negro. It is typical of songs extemporized at Christmas time on the plantations. Three versions of "Mary Had a Baby" are sung on St. HelenaIsland.9

The true dance form of the jivaros is the simple "seis."This is interrupted by a recitation, a humorous "copla"called "bombai," which in this instance is a short melodicpart of eight measures with interminable variations onone theme. In the modern Vals Jivaros, frequent syncopation is employed by leaving out the first beat of eachmeasure and substituting a stroke on the box of the crudeinstrument which is used for the accompaniment. Themelodic phrase is short, and the simple harmony is basedon chords of the tonic, sub-dominant and dominant.

"Regularly in folk-blues the last syllable of each linethus coincides, not only with the key-note or another element of the tonic major triad, but with the first beat,third bar, of its corresponding four bars of music, leavingseven quick beats or three slow ones (according to time-signature) before the melody proper resumes its motion."

We find Bridgetower at the Handel commemoration of1791, when, with young Hummel, he was seated at theside of Joah Bates, organist, and pulled out his stops forhim. He was engaged as a performer at the Haydn-Salomon concerts10 of 1791, and at the concerts of Barthlemon's in 1792 and 1794 when he played a concerto ofViotti's. Further notice of Bridgetower appears in Bossler's Musical Correspondence of July 7, 1790, in a letterof June 6 from Abt Vogler, which reads:

Bridgetower's works were worthy of notice. Manuscriptsfound in the British Museum, bear his signature. Chiefamong his compositions there is the Henry ballad dedicated to her Royal Highness, the Princess of Wales, whichwas formerly sung by Miss Feron. The pianoforte studiesare forty-one in number. Other works thought to be hisare two books of Minuets for Violin, Mandolin, GermanFlute and Harpsichord, Composed by an African, Inscribedto His Grace, Duke of Buccleugh and to the Right Honorable John, Lord Montague of Broughton. The studiesDiatonica Armonica mentioned above, were publishedin 1812.

It is tuned according to the pentatonic scale. Length 2 feetdiameter 10½ inches. The Kissar is used in a worship dance("Zar") in the Nile district. The instrument is known in Egypt.Specimen in New York Museum.

"Nobody Knows de Trouble I've Seen," is a Spiritual of slavery,noted in Slave Songs of the United States, 1865, and in Jubilee and Plantation Songs as "Nobody Knows the Trouble I See." Versions are found as "Nobody Knows de Trouble I See, Lord" fromFlorida, arranged for solo voice by James Weldon Johnson; and"Nobody knows de trouble I've had," noted in Slave Songs of the United States, 1867. The early song comes from the SeaIslands and was heard sung in Charleston, South Carolina, before1865. It is written in the pentatonic scale, and was heard in theSea Islands when the Government had failed to carry out itspromise in regard to the allotment of land to the freedmen. Gen.Howard, called to address the gathering of colored people, askedthem to sing. The sad strains of the old song as it broke forthfrom the throat of an old woman, deeply affected the speaker. Mr.Krehbiel declares that the two emotional poles, despair and hopefulness, are touched in this song. A similar song, "I'm a rolling,"is found in the Story of the Jubilee Singers with their songs, byJ. B. T. Marsh, 1875; in Slave Songs of Fisk, 1874, and in theOliver Ditson Collection.

"The Gospel Train," a revival song, pentatonic, noted inJubilee Songs, 1872, and in Jubilee and Plantation Songs, 1887. A variantis found in the Bahama Islands, "Get on Board," noted inEdward's Songs and Stories, 1895. Other variations are, "From Every Graveyard" and "Git on Board Little Children." Hampton Cabin and Plantation Songs, 1901.

"Somebody Knocking At Yo' Do'," a Spiritual in pentatonic scalenoted in the Calhoun collection. A version, "O Sinner You'd BetterGet Ready," is found in the Hampton collection, Cabin and Plantation Songs. A version which the author collected in Texas is,"Just Well Get Ready, You Got To Die."


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